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Målinger av fordeling og tetthet av brisling i Årdalsfjorden med kajakkdrone For å kunne overvåke endringene i brislingbestandene og gi et bærekraftig kvoteråd på brisling, gjennomføres det regelmessige akustiske-tråltokt i fjordene med forskningsskip i regi singel treff tokke HI.
Det har blitt stilt spørsmål ved om kvaliteten på dataene som samles inn med disse skipene, da single fjord har indikasjoner på at en del av brislingstimene står for nær overflaten til å kunne måles med skipets ekkolodd. I tillegg er det krevende å navigere nær land og på grunne områder med disse store skipene.
Under årets brislingtokt med FF Kristine Bonnevie ble det derfor gjennomført et eksperiment der ekkoloddata kHz ble samlet inn med Havforskningsinstituttets stillegående kajakkdrone i Årdalsfjorden på kvelden Det ble målt omtrent like stor mengde og ganske lik horisontal fordeling av brisling i de to forsøkene. En del stimer ble observert så nært land at de er utilgjengelig for et stort skip. Forsøket viser at man bør videreutvikle teknologi som kan måle fisk som står nær overflaten for å kunne overvåke brisling, og at single fjord tokt bør inkludere denne type single fjord.
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Summary Sprat is a key species in several Norwegian fjords, as an important prey for fish, sea mammals and sea birds.
The sprat populations are monitored with routine acoustic-trawl surveys using a large research vessel, which provide the main scientific basis for sprat quota advices.
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Previous survey observations indicate that a significant fraction of the sprat population can be found close to the sea surface and thereby in the acoustic blind zone of the echosounder mounted below the vessel. In addition, fish may avoid the approaching vessel, and thereby measure less acoustic density. Furthermore, a large research vessel cannot operate in shallow waters and is difficult to maneuver close to the shore.
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In an experiment carried out in Årdalsfjorden in the evening 15 August and during daytime 16 August, the distribution of sprat was measured with a kayak drone installed with a kHz echosounder. Skoppum dating geographical distribution and the mean acoustic density were similar between the two coverages.
This experiment show that future sprat surveys should be carried with silent vehicles where the echo sounders are mounted near the surface. A larger vessel is though also needed for trawling for biological samples.
Photo: Espen Single fjord Årdalsfjorden is a fjord arm situated in the inner part of Sognefjorden, the deepest fjord in Norway m and the second longest fjord in the world km.
In this ecosystem, the small clupeid single fjord Sprattus sprattus L. It feeds on zooplankton Falkenhaug and Dalpadado and is itself an important single fjord for both larger fish, sea mammals and birds Bakketeig single fjord al. After the ies, the catches have been much lower, but also the fishing effort Bakketeig et al. Surveying sprat in the Norwegian fjords is important due to the role of sprat in the ecosystem. In fjords with a fishery for sprat, like Sognefjorden, surveys are also needed to give adequate advice for the managers setting quota limits.
The sprat and herring populations in the Norwegian fjords are traditionally monitored using acoustic-trawl surveys carried out by a large research vessel Kvamme et al. As standard, the keel is not extended during the fjord cruises and the transducer depth is therefore around 6 m. Furthermore, a large research vessel cannot operate in shallow waters and is difficult to maneuver very close to the shore. To examine the challenges described above, an initial list of main objectives and associated methods was set up for the kayak drone experiments.
These were: Measure the abundance of sprat in one or more side fjords to the Sognefjord using the kayak drone during day and night. Investigate if sprat is distributed in the surface blind zone of RV Kristine Bonnevie.
Investigate if sprat avoids RV Kristine Bonnevie. As one of the objectives was to observe the sprat distribution very close to the shore, we needed accurate map data to generate an accurate stratum polygon and cruise transects.
The Route files were copied to the kayak drone computer with waypoints. These routes govern sailing of the drone in autonomous mode as used here. Figure 1. Screen dump of OpenCPN.
Transect lines with direction shown as red arrows in OpenCPN during the first coverage in the evening and night run1. The dark green line shows the actual track of the drone.
The complete sailed distance for each of the two coverages was approx. In run1 the battery for the propulsion motor ran out of power at the final transect 1 nmi from the endwhile run 2 was completed as planned.
Both surveys were successfully carried out. This equipment was powered by a small 12V DC lead battery.
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The MOB boat acted as the control centre during the surveys. Figure 2.
MOB boat under operation of the kayak drone. The MOB boat Figure 2 was used as a speed dating i myre centre since the experiments were conducted in a fjord trafficked by leisure boats.
This single fjord a safety measure and allowed for a quick intervention if needed. No intervention of the kayak drone operation was needed. The kayak drone running one of the planned transects in Årdalsfjorden, Sognefjord. The kayak drone has a maximum speed of 8 knots. The motor has a large propeller and low revolutions per minute RPMgiving a very silent travel through the water. Operation time of the Torqeedo motor with a travel speed of about 5 knots is about 4 hours with the current battery.
The kayak hull has free space for single fjord second battery which will double the sailing capacity. The transducers are mounted in the bulb at the end of a 1. This keel brings the transducer below the surface bubble layer and provides stability to the kayak single fjord. The central control unit and data logger is a ruggedized Window 10 computer. The computer also contains EK60 echo sounder software, and it receives data from the installed GPS vector compass that output accurate position, UTC time, heading, speed over ground, tilt, roll and rotation speed.
An AIS transceiver is also integrated in the system to increase the visibility of the kayak drone to other vessels. A marine Wi-Fi link between the drone and mother-vessel, and the use of remote control VNC software, makes it possible to access the kayak drone computer from an external computer from a distance. The kayak drone computer screen is shown remotely, and keyboard and mouse actions are transmitted to the drone.
The drone may be operated without remote access if preferred. Figure 4. Launching of kayak from RV Kristine Bonnevie.
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The generic computer solution enables future implementation of new sensors and software in the drone without major changes to the overall system. The two programs process and exchange data. In standard mode, the user set up a route with waypoints for the desired sailing in the chart of OpenCPN. The drone will then follow the route to the end and stop.
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OpenCPN uses well tested algorithms for navigation and output processed data for the use of the EchoDrone. Figure 5. Screen dump of the kayak drone PC. To the left is the EchoDrone. In the middle EK60 software showing a school of sprat in the current position close to the shore.
To the right is the OpenCPN chart program. The route is indicated by consecutive red arrows. Next waypoint is indicated by a red circle with yellow fill. The drone is shown as a red ship and the actual sailed track of the drone is shown as a curved line.
single fjord For the first run data were collected up single fjord m range and with a ping interval of 0. For the second run the ping interval was changed to 0. Due to time constraints the echo sounder was not calibrated. Raw acoustic data were scrutinized in LSSS 2. To avoid unwanted weaker targets like plankton to influence the results we used a threshold of dB.
The scrutinized data were stored at a resolution of 0. StoX projects were created for respectively run1 and run2 Figure 7and the acoustic primary sampling units were defined. Figure 6. Screen dump of single fjord LSSS software. Top picture: Echogram of the second run. Bottom left: Map of both runs run1 is depicted as a red line and run2 is depicted as single fjord line. Bottom right: Acoustic categorizing window.
Figure 7. Screen dump of the StoX window of survey run2. The Årdal fjord stratum is depicted as a grey layer in the map. Note that the background map in StoX is of low resolution and does datingsider i hole contain details of the fjords. See Johnsen et al. The remaining main single fjord issue of the kayak drone is the poor performance of the WiFi link between drone and mother-vessel.
The connection breaks down from time to time. However, the drone is autonomous and continues the planned surveying also without this link. During this survey, some minor needs for improvement were identified and mostly corrected: The shape of the kayak is sensitive to the athwartship weight balance. The balance was adjusted before run2, giving an improved performance. Further adjustment is planned. A minor leakage a few centilitres into the GPT chamber was detected midway during run2.
The alarm in the drone gave indications.
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After the experiment was completed, the leakage was identified to be related to a tube through the deck with poor sealing. This will be fixed after the survey. If longer operation time is desired, an extra propulsion battery could be installed, doubling the operation time. New types of batteries for the instrumentation may be needed as well. These are less heavy and with higher capacity than the current lead batteries.
During run2 the drone turned for a new transect meter to early. This will be corrected by a setting in OpenCPN for the next similar survey.